A Primer on Safety in Bear Country
I feel it is important to share what we know about bear behaviour and the potential threat that bears may pose to humans. Bears are highly intelligent and complex animals; the more we learn about them, the more we find that the broad generalizations of the past are not always accurate. On this page I'd like to provide some important tips about bear behaviour and how to maximize your safety around bears.
Please note: This summary is intended to be a quick guide and is not a comprehensive review on safety in bear country. Like the bears themselves, this is a complex subject that requires significant preparation. Much of the information I present here is drawn from the seminal work of Dr. Stephen Herrero in his book "Bear Attacks: Their Causes and Avoidance" (1985, 2002) and from his more recent work with other researchers, "Fatal attacks by American black bear on people: 1900–2009" (The Journal of Wildlife Management Volume 75, Issue 3, pages 596–603, April 2011). Dr. Herrero is considered a leading expert on bear attacks and bear behaviour and has done ground-breaking research in this area; I highly recommend reading both of these publications.
1. Black Bear (Ursus americanus)
The black bear is the most widely distributed of our bear species in North America. As such, it's the bear you are most likely to encounter in the wild. Let's begin by discussing some myths that I often hear about black bears.
Myth #1: If you leave them alone, they'll leave you alone.
Don't bet your life on it! Fortunately, it is true that in most encounters, black bears will leave the instant they sense a human being. In some cases, they will approach people out of curiosity. However, in extremely rare instances, they will attack and eat people, although this is not publicized by authorities. Yes, you read that correctly: between 1978 and 1991, for example, 5 people were killed and eaten by black bears in two separate attacks in Ontario's Algonquin Provincial Park alone! In 2005, a woman was killed by a predatory bear in another provincial park while canoe-camping with her husband. Several dozen similar fatalities resulting from predatory behaviour have been documented across North America over the past century. In addition to the fatalities, there have been many predatory attacks in Ontario and elsewhere in which the victims narrowly escaped with their lives. The accounts of these tragic attacks are easily searchable on the Internet, as well as in Dr. Herrero's work. Remember, therefore, that our smallest and most common bear is still potentially lethal! In recent research, Stephen Herrero and other scientists have documented that most cases of injury and death to humans by black bears can be attributed to predatory adult males.
Myth #2: A black bear mother with cubs is the most dangerous bear.
This is false. See Myth #1 above: it's the adult males you have to watch out for. Black bear mothers most often send their cubs up a tree or other cover when they are disturbed, and will rarely attack people in defense of their cubs. It is possible they will bluff charge to frighten people away, but there are almost no known cases of serious injury or death inflicted on people by a black bear sow in defense of cubs.
Myth #3: Black bears are more afraid of you than you are of them.
Yes, sometimes, but not as often as most people would like to believe. Think of some black bears as the schoolyard bullies of our forests. They are all about intimidation and what they think they can get away with. If the bear is a starving adult male and sizes you up as a low-risk meal, you could be in serious trouble. And if you startle a hungry bear feeding on its prey and it feels you are threatening its catch of the day/week/month, be on your guard. Bears habituated to human presence by frequenting campgrounds or garbage dumps may also pose a threat to your safety simply because they won't mind approaching you or scaring you away to get at your food. Generally, if the bear sees you as a valuable food source, I can almost guarantee you that it will not fear you as much as you think!
How to Stay (relatively) Safe in Bear Country
Given what we now know about black bears, should you be afraid to go into the woods? No, of course not! Happily, most human-bear interactions end safely for both parties. And there are steps that every person working and living in bear country can take that will go a long way to avoiding trouble with black bears:
1) Carry bear spray and know how to use it.
Although the debate continues, most researchers have concluded that bear spray is much more effective in a bear encounter than a firearm. There are several reasons for this, not the least of which is the extreme difficulty of stopping a charging bear in its tracks with a gun. To do so, you would have to be: a) very calm under extreme duress; b) an excellent and experienced hunter; and, c) know exactly where to place your shots to kill the animal. Anything short of that, and you're likely to end up with an angrier, wounded bear attacking you! Many hunters will tell you that a single shot is usually not enough to kill a moving bear. Perhaps more importantly, firearms are prohibited in most provincial and national parks, so this is really not an option for most of us. If you check out one of my profile pics on this site, you will note that I am carrying bear spray in a green belt holster. It is there ready to use. Please don't be like the well-meaning gentleman I once encountered in the Rocky Mountains who had a brand-new can of bear spray still wrapped in plastic packaging from the store, and buried inside his backpack! In the very rare event you will need to use bear spray to discourage a bold or predatory black bear, chances are you will NOT have time to take the spray out of your pack and remove the packaging. Keep in mind that the bear may not be polite enough to wait while you do so.
2) Make noise
To avoid surprising a bear, and to ensure it always has an escape route if you are approaching, it is best to talk, sing, whistle or periodically call out as you hike along. I have tried the 'bear bells' that are available in many outdoor stores and personally do not find them particularly loud or effective. However, a combination of bear bells and making noise yourself may be ideal.
3) Travel in groups whenever possible.
Remember what I said about schoolyard bullies? For whatever reason, black bears generally don't like to attack groups of people. They may feel that the risk to their own safety is too high. There have been exceptions, but overall it seems that you're safer in a group.
4) Never run from a bear (or turn your back to it)
To make a long story short: running from a bear may incite its predatory instinct and/or its curiosity, in which case it is highly likely the bear will chase you. If it chases you, you will lose the race. If you encounter a bear and it sees you, generally your best course of action is to raise your arms to make yourself look bigger and slowly back away while speaking to the bear. Do not maintain eye contact, however, as this may be seen as a challenge. Chances are very good the bear will feel it has the choice to back down and leave (see my personal encounter below).
5) The most important rule: Do not play dead!
This one may surprise you, but research (and the tragedy of many unfortunate victims) has shown that a predatory black bear will NOT stop its attack if you lie down and try to play dead...you will only make it easier for the bear to consume its meal (you!). In this way, black bears are quite different from grizzlies. If a black bear makes contact with you and is attacking, you have no choice but to fight for your life with whatever you have at hand! Poke its eyes, hit it with a rock, yell at it; in short, do whatever you can. I carry a large hunting knife on my belt along with my bear spray. At least a couple of bear attack victims in recent years have saved themselves by repeatedly stabbing the bear. Bears are extremely strong and are not easy to kill, but for the sake of saving your life, anything is worth a try!
6) The Obvious: Do not approach bears.
A simple rule, but one that very often gets broken, especially by some photographers and curious campers or hikers. As docile as a bear may seem, remember that it is capable of racehorse speed. It can run faster than you, climb trees better than you, and even follow you into the water. By the way, biologists say it is not true that bears are slower while running downhill. I have not personally verified this and I don't think I am going to. Don't give a bear any reason to feel threatened!
7) The Obvious: Don't attract bears with food